Ángel D'Agostino

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Ángel D'Agostino


DAG0005.jpg


Full civil name Ángel Domingo Emilio D'Agostino
Artist name Ángel D'Agostino
Date of birth 1900/05/25 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Date of death 1991/01/16 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Role(s)  • Orchestra director
 • Musician
Instrument(s)  • Piano


Ángel Domingo Emilio D’Agostino (May 25th, 1900 Buenos Aires, Argentina - January 16th, 1991 idem) was an Argentine pianist and orchestra director. His musical career began at an early age and soon escalated to reach its peak as director of one of the most renowned tango orchestras of all time. D’Agostino’s style is defined by respect of melodic lines and rhythm, making his music a favourite among dancers. It is generally considered that his greatest work was done in combination with the singer Ángel Vargas, with whom D’Agostino recorded extensively.


Career

Early days

On Moreno 1626, between the streets Solís and Virrey Cevallos, in the neighbourhood of Congreso, Ángel D’Agostino was born to a home where music was always present. Though not professionally, many of his relatives played musical instruments, and young Ángel was drawn to the piano as early as the age of 6.[1] According to Nicolás Lefcovich, the official start of his artistic career occurred in 1911, when D’Agostino formed his first orchestra, alongside his violinist friends Juan D’Arienzo and Eusebio Bianchi, to perform every Sunday at the Guignol Theatre, at the city’s Zoological Gardel.[2] Legend tells it ended badly, with the youngsters setting the place on fire, as a protest for not getting paid for their work.[3] Word about D’Agostino’s talent spread and he soon became a favourite performer at the most aristocratic households of Buenos Aires, where he was considered to be a child prodigy.

The following years would be busy and successful. At fourteen, he formed a duet with the violinist Eduardo Armani to play at a famous German brewery. He would then move onto performing as a varieté artist, setting a firm first foot on many of the city's stages. With Ennio Bolognini, back then reputed as the best violoncellist in the world, D’Agostino performed at the Jockey Club, and the famous establishments Florida, Empire and Apolo. It is know as a colorful anecdote, that D’Agostino and Bolognini played the Marseillaise from a balcony to celebrate the ending of the first world war.[4]

D’Agostino had abandoned his studies at an early stage, but his dedication to music was already proving fruitful. By then, however, he still wasn’t devoted to tango exclusively. He even had a brief appearance as an actor at the Cervantes Theatre, and, back to the piano, accompanied singers such as Gloria Guzmán, Lola Membrives and the soprano María Barrientos. D'Agostino was even said to be the only one able to replace the English pianist Frederickson, who specialized in performing the challenging genre ragtime, as well as in missing performances due to his intricate relationship with alcohol.[5] In D’Agostino’s own words:

I was as content as I could be, because I’ve always liked playing music from all over the world. One must give music the essence of the place and time that correspond to it. And regading that, I’m allowed to say I’m trustworthy and respect it.[6]

D’Agostino’s orchestras

His passing through Juan Maglio’s orchestra brought him closer to tango. However, D’Agostino’s first own mature orchestra, presented on March 15th, 1920 at the Teatro Nacional, was introduced as a típica y jazz. The show was successful and the orchestra was soon hired to play at the Palais de Glace.[7] It was by then that D’Agostino incorporated Agesislao Ferrazzano, considered by D’Agostino and many others to have been the best violin tango has ever had.

Some years later, in 1925, D’Agostino performed with his orchestra at the Paramount Cinema, thus becoming the first cinema to include a live orchestra in its show, while D’Agostino’s orchestra became the first one the play in such context.[8] Soon enough, other cinemas started looking for artists to perform, and so it was that the cinema became one of the most frequent sources of work for musicians. Some outstanding members of D’Agostino’s orchestra at the time were Juan D’Arienzo, Anselmo Aieta and Ciriaco Ortiz. Simultaneously, the orchestra performed at the high-profile café L’Aiglon, located on the street Florida, entertaining a high class audience.

A new orchestra was formed in 1928, together with the violinist Alfredo Mazzeo, and successful performances followed one another. They were eventually invited to play and became exclusive artists of LS2 Radio Prieto, performing daily at the station’s prime time.[9] Later on, D’Agostino had his own show, in which he normally invited other musicians and interviewed them. It is known that the seed of the frienship between Troilo and Fiorentino, who was, by then, singing with D’Arienzo, was first planted during one of these interviews.

In 1934, D’Agostino formed yet a new orchestra, his first “typical orchestra.“ Some names are particularly worthy of mention, such as Hugo Baralis, Aníbal Troilo and the singer Alberto Echagüe. Success was faithful to D’Agostino and, together with his new formation, he performed at the Tabaris and the Chantecler, two of the highest-profile cabarets at the time.

Meet Vargas

It was in 1932, after a performance at the Florida Theatre, that the two Ángeles met,[10] introduced to each other by a business man called Vázquez, Paulina Singerman’s[11] husband. By then, Ángel Vargas worked at a cold-storage plant, and was already known to D’Agostino, since they were both regulars at the café Tres Esquinas.

Their official debut took place in 1940 at the cinema Florida, and then at Radio El Mundo.[12] They were immediately offered a contract from RCA Victor, and so began six years of hard work, the result of which, apart from hundreds of concerts and radio appearances, are almost 100 recordings which are, to the day, heard and danced to with reverence and pleasure all around the world.

The artistic association of “the two Angels of tango“ was a roaring success from the very beginning, but their partnership was never stable, in spite of the numerous performances they shared and the large amount of recordings they made together. For example, as tango researcher and collector Carlos Puente explains:

Their six years of work were almost cut in half by a two-month absence of Vargas, who left the orchestra together with bandoneon player Alfredo Attadia. They weren’t a failure, but what they achieved was nothing in comparison with the impact Vargas’s work with D’Agostino had had on the audience. D’Agostino, on his part, filled Vargas’s space with Raúl Aldao, but they found the same situation Vargas did on his own. As a result, two months later, D’Agostino and Vargas were back together, starting what would be a sort of “second half“ of their career together as one of the most successful pairs in the history of tango.[13]

Indeed, their success by 1944 was huge, and it coincided with the ochestra’s passage from Radio El Mundo to the brand-new Radio Splendid. It was one of the big changes in the radio world at the time. Radio Splendid had the flavour of novelty, and many orchestras, such as D’Agostino’s or Biagi’s began to play there instead.

Finally, in 1946 D’Agostino dissolved the orchestra. Even though he were to come back later on, that was the end of the D’Agostino-Vargas association. There is not a lot of detail about the exact reasons for D’Agostino’s decision. Some say it had to do with new regulations pertaining orchestras, that had a much more corporative approach that he liked. Others say there were big differences between both Vargas and D’Agostino’s approach to work. Some say they just preferred to part ways and pursuit their careers separately. Carlos Puente referred in an interview[14] that the possibility for a tour to the province of Mendoza had appeared, but since D’Agostino wouldn’t leave the city − he was always extremely reluctant to crossing the Gral. Paz[15] − Vargas went on his own, with another band; D’Agostino stayed in Buenos Aires, fulfilled all of his pending commitments and obligations with the singer Tino García filling in for Vargas, and once he was done, handed over the orchestra to arranger and first bandoneón Eduardo Del Piano to do as he pleased. And so was it that, upon Vargas’s return from Mendoza, the ruiseñor began performing with this “new“ orchestra, that was almost exactly the same as D’Agostino’s. The orchestra as such held together for about three years.

Ángel Vargas is singing Tres esquinas: The media player is loading...

Last years

Acclaimed by his audience, D’Agostino returned once more, together with Tino García. Even though they recorded, made radio appearances and numerous concerts, it was only for a short time. It wouldn’t be until early 1951 that D’Agostino would make a more lasting comeback, accompanied by the singers Tino García and Rubén Cané. It was Canaro, back around the year 38, the first one to introduce two singers with his orchestra. It became quite normal during the 40’s, when the success of tango reached its peak, and it thus became terribly strenuous for just one voice to keep up the pace of the numerous performances.

D’Agostino’s new orchestra did well; it perfomed, participated in radio shows, made recordings, though more sporadically than before. The singers who participated in this last decade of activity were, apart from Tino García and Rubén Cané, Ricardo Ruiz, Roberto Alvar and Raúl Lavié. It was clear that the overwhelming success achieved with Vargas was not to happen again. Times were changing.

D’Agostino retired in 1962 and continued to live in Buenos Aires, as well as steadily taking part in its nightlife. He died in the early morning, on January 16th, 1991, at age 90. Here’s an extract from the article in the Clarín newspaper, that gave the news of his passing:

Don Ángel died as he liked to live: alone, with his piano and his memories. (...) His friends from the neighbourhood said he was happy and dynamic as always. He was a classic porteño, and got his moment of great fame with Ángel Vargas. Afterwards, the maestro retired, because the time had come for the “low tide of tango.“[16]

Recordings

On more than one occasion, D’Agostino declined offers from RCA Victor and Electra to record. The reasons are not really known. It was only with Vargas, that he began to record, and he did so as one of RCA Victor’s artists.

Ángel D’Agostino made a total of 143 recordings, including the soundtrack of the short film “El cuarteador.“ The vast majority of such recordings, 94, were done with Ángel Vargas as singer: 6 milongas, 5 waltzes, and 83 tangos. However, other singers to record with D’Agostino were: Tino García, Rubén Cané, Roberto Alvar, Ricardo Ruiz and Raúl Lavié.

Recordings with Ángel Vargas

There are 87 recordings. Click expand to view all. Sort results with the little arrows.

Title Singer Record date Genre Label Disco No Matrix No Side Disc type
R000471 Bailarín de contraseña Ángel Vargas 27 August 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0768 BAVE 80780-1 A Shellac
R000472 Menta y cedrón Ángel Vargas 17 July 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0733 BAVE 80725 A Shellac
R000473 Porque me siento feliz Ángel Vargas 17 July 1945 Milonga RCA Victor 60-0733 BAVE 80724 B Shellac
R000474 La cumparsita Ángel Vargas 8 February 1946 Tango RCA Victor 60-0883 BAVE 82000-1 A Shellac
R000475 Serpentinas de esperanza Ángel Vargas 8 February 1946 Tango RCA Victor 60-0883 BAVE 82001-1 B Shellac
R000476 A pan y agua Ángel Vargas 2 October 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0796 80833-1 A Shellac
R000477 Esta noche en Buenos Aires Ángel Vargas 31 January 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0348 BAVE 79524-1 A Shellac
R000478 Palais de Glace Ángel Vargas 13 September 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0538 BAVE 79848-1 A Shellac
R000479 La última cita Ángel Vargas 8 August 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0512 BAVE 79806 B Shellac
R000480 No vendrás Ángel Vargas 2 November 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0821 BAVE 80871 A Shellac
R000481 Ave de paso Ángel Vargas 2 November 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0821 BAVE 80872 B Shellac
R000482 Muchacho Ángel Vargas 13 November 1940 Tango RCA Victor 39136 BAVE 39632-1 A Shellac
R000483 No aflojés Ángel Vargas 13 November 1940 Tango RCA Victor 39136 BAVE 39631-1 B Shellac
R000484 Un copetín Ángel Vargas 24 July 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39359 BAVE 59593-1 A Shellac
R000485 Tres esquinas Ángel Vargas 24 July 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39359 BAVE 59594-1 B Shellac
R000486 Solo compasión Ángel Vargas 20 October 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39437 BAVE 59834-1 A Shellac
R000487 Compadreando Ángel Vargas 20 October 1941 Milonga RCA Victor 39437 BAVE 59835-2 B Shellac
R000488 Ahora no me conocés Ángel Vargas 9 September 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39404 BAVE 59770-1 A Shellac
R000489 Adiós arrabal Ángel Vargas 9 September 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39404 BAVE 59771-1 B Shellac
R000490 Agua florida Ángel Vargas 13 November 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39479 BAVE 59873-1 A Shellac
R000491 Una pena Ángel Vargas 5 November 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39479 BAVE 59861-1 B Shellac
R000492 El choclo Ángel Vargas 13 November 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39492 BAVE 59872-1 A Shellac
R000493 Traiga otra caña Ángel Vargas 12 November 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39492 BAVE 59862-1 B Shellac
R000494 El yacaré Ángel Vargas 12 December 1941 Tango RCA Victor 39521 BAVE 59923-1 A Shellac
R000495 Qué me pasará Ángel Vargas 12 December 1941 Vals RCA Victor 39521 BAVE 59922-1 B Shellac
R000496 Notas de bandoneón Ángel Vargas 17 March 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39552 BAVE 69616-1 A Shellac
R000497 Adiós para siempre Ángel Vargas 17 March 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39552 BAVE 69617-1 B Shellac
R000498 Viejo coche Ángel Vargas 7 April 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39569 BAVE 69643-1 A Shellac
R000499 Pobre gallo bataraz Ángel Vargas 7 April 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39569 BAVE 69644-1 B Shellac
R000500 Gorriones Ángel Vargas 23 April 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39624 BAVE 69645-1 A Shellac
R000501 Esquinas porteñas Ángel Vargas 22 May 1942 Vals RCA Victor 39624 BAVE 69723-1 B Shellac
R000502 Un tropezón Ángel Vargas 23 April 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39594 BAVE 69682-1 A Shellac
R000503 Entre copa y copa Ángel Vargas 23 April 1942 Milonga RCA Victor 39594 BAVE 69683 B Shellac
R000504 Trasnochando Ángel Vargas 15 June 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39633 BAVE 69760-1 A Shellac
R000505 Dice un refrán... Ángel Vargas 22 May 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39633 BAVE 69724-1 B Shellac
R000506 Un lamento Ángel Vargas 15 July 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39657 BAVE 69801-1 A Shellac
R000507 Al volverte a ver Ángel Vargas 15 July 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39657 BAVE 69802-1 B Shellac
R000508 Guitarra que llora Ángel Vargas 15 June 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39688 BAVE 69759 B Shellac
R000509 Hay que vivirla... compadre! Ángel Vargas 2 September 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39694 BAVE 69910 A Shellac
R000510 Pero... yo sé Ángel Vargas 2 September 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39694 BAVE 69911 B Shellac
R000511 De salto y carta Ángel Vargas 15 October 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39746 BAVE 84001-1 A Shellac
R000512 Llora vida mía Ángel Vargas 17 November 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39785 BAVE 84058 A Shellac
R000513 Así me gusta a mí Ángel Vargas 17 November 1942 Milonga RCA Victor 39785 BAVE 84059 B Shellac
R000514 Ninguna Ángel Vargas 30 December 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39817 BAVE 84222-1 A Shellac
R000515 Todo terminó Ángel Vargas 14 December 1942 Tango RCA Victor 39817 BAVE 84189-1 B Shellac
R000516 Tomo y obligo Ángel Vargas 10 June 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0102 BAVE 77002-1 A Shellac
R000517 El trompito Ángel Vargas 10 June 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0102 BAVE 77001-1 B Shellac
R000518 El porteñito Ángel Vargas 23 March 1943 Tango milonga RCA Victor 60-0037 BAVE 84270-1 A Shellac
R000519 No creas Ángel Vargas 23 March 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0037 BAVE 84269-1 B Shellac
R000520 Madre hay una sola Ángel Vargas 30 April 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0066 BAVE 84321-1 A Shellac
R000521 Me llaman tango Ángel Vargas 30 April 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0066 BAVE 84322-1 B Shellac
R000522 Cardo azul Ángel Vargas 3 September 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0193 BAVE 77207 A Shellac
R000523 Un tango argentino Ángel Vargas 3 September 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0193 BAVE 77206 B Shellac
R000524 Qué lento corre el tren Ángel Vargas 3 September 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0204 BAVE 77208-1 A Shellac
R000525 Cantando olvidaré Ángel Vargas 15 November 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0265 BAVE 77379-1 A Shellac
R000526 La carreta Ángel Vargas 15 November 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0265 BAVE 77378-1 B Shellac
R000527 Destellos Ángel Vargas 29 March 1946 Tango RCA Victor 60-0911 BAVE 82053-1 A Shellac
R000528 El morocho y el oriental Ángel Vargas 12 July 1946 Milonga RCA Victor 60-0991 BAVE 82215-1 A Shellac
R000529 Demasiado tarde Ángel Vargas 10 September 1946 Tango RCA Victor 60-1044 BAVE 82335 A Shellac
R000530 Camino del Tucumán Ángel Vargas 10 September 1946 Tango RCA Victor 60-1044 BAVE 82336 B Shellac
R000531 El cornetín del tranvía Ángel Vargas 15 November 1943 Tango RCA Victor 60-0312 BAVE 77380 B Shellac
R000532 Pinta blanca Ángel Vargas 27 August 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0768 BAVE 80781-1 B Shellac
R000533 Tristeza criolla Ángel Vargas 2 October 1945 Vals RCA Victor 60-0796 BAVE 80834-1 B Shellac
R000534 De igual a igual Ángel Vargas 2 November 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0809 BAVE 80869-1 A Shellac
R000535 Rondando tu esquina Ángel Vargas 2 November 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0809 BAVE 80870-1 B Shellac
R000536 Cuando se ha querido mucho Ángel Vargas 20 March 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0654 BAVE 80579-1 A Shellac
R000537 Señores... yo soy del centro Ángel Vargas 20 March 1945 Milonga RCA Victor 60-0654 BAVE 80580-1 B Shellac
R000538 El aristócrata / El Shusheta Ángel Vargas 5 April 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0664 BAVE 80600-1 A Shellac
R000539 Mentiras Ángel Vargas 5 April 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0664 BAVE 80599-1 B Shellac
R000540 Hotel Victoria Ángel Vargas 21 May 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0692 BAVE 80655 A Shellac
R000541 A quien le puede importar Ángel Vargas 7 August 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0749 BAVE 80758-1 A Shellac
R000542 Caricias Ángel Vargas 7 August 1945 Tango RCA Victor 60-0749 BAVE 80757-1 B Shellac
R000543 Muñequita Ángel Vargas 19 July 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0493 BAVE 79780 A Shellac
R000544 Mi viejo barrio Ángel Vargas 8 August 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0512 BAVE 79805 A Shellac
R000545 La nueva vecina Ángel Vargas 13 September 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0538 BAVE 79847-1 B Shellac
R000546 Yo soy de Parque Patricios Ángel Vargas 5 December 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0590 BAVE 79966-1 A Shellac
R000547 Madreselva Ángel Vargas 5 December 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0590 BAVE 79967-1 B Shellac
R000548 Rosita, la santiagueña Ángel Vargas 2 November 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0569 BAVE 79916 A Shellac
R000549 El cocherito Ángel Vargas 2 November 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0569 BAVE 79917 B Shellac
R000550 Quien tuviera 18 años Ángel Vargas 31 January 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0348 BAVE 79523-1 B Shellac
R000551 Mano blanca Ángel Vargas 9 March 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0376 BAVE 79547 B Shellac
R000552 Más solo que nunca Ángel Vargas 5 April 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0404 BAVE 79616-1 A Shellac
R000553 Como el hornero Ángel Vargas 5 April 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0404 BAVE 79617-1 B Shellac
R000554 Así era el tango Ángel Vargas 5 April 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0420 BAVE 79615-1 A Shellac
R000555 El espejo de tus ojos Ángel Vargas 9 March 1944 Vals RCA Victor 60-0420 BAVE 79546-1 B Shellac
R000556 Su carta no llegó Ángel Vargas 26 May 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0447 BAVE 79710 A Shellac
R000557 El poncho del olvido Ángel Vargas 26 May 1944 Tango RCA Victor 60-0447 BAVE 79711 B Shellac




Recordings with other singers

There are no recordings. See the help section on how to add new recordings.



D’Agostino as composer

D’Agostino’s legacy as a composer left valuable jewels. The following are the ones recorded by his own orchestra:

Interesting facts

  • It is worthy of mention, that D’Agostino and his orchestra participated in the extremely popular radio show at Radio El Mundo, called “Ronda de Ases“ (lit. “Round of Aces“). It featured a kind of contest where several great orchestras participated playing an original arrangement of a certaing given tango, milonga or vals. Then, a group of appointed judges and the audience would vote a winner. The show had such a large audience, and the participating orchestras were so renowned (Troilo, Tanturi, Fresedo, D’Arienzo, Di Sarli, to name a few) that it was a very prestigious thing to participate in it, not to say to be the winner. On October 28th, 1942, D’Agostino and his orchestra won the prize, which also involved a not at all neglectable sum of money.
  • In the year 1942 D’Agostino and Vargas participated in a short, ten-minute film, produced by a back then well-known race car driver called Emilio Cartulovich. It belonged to a series of short films that featured also other orchestras, such as Rodríguez with Moreno, Laurenz with Podestá, and Brunelli with Radamés, among others. In the case of D’Agostino, the two songs featured, sung by Vargas and played by a quartet (piano, bandoneón, contrabass and violin), were “Tres esquinas“ and the milonga “El cuarteador“. The latter had been recorded by Troilo with Fiorentino, and even though D’Agostino had the milonga in his orchestra’s repertoire, they never recorded it. Some time later, RCA Victor released the soundtrack of the film, so it was thanks to that, that that version was saved from being lost.

References

  1. Ferrer, Horacio, El libro del tango, Buenos Aires, Galerna, 1977, p. 361.
  2. Lefcovich, Nicolás, Estudio de la discografía de D'Agostino-Vargas: Todas sus composiciones y trayectoria artística, L. N. Lefcovich, Buenos Aires, 1983, p. 5.
  3. Los grandes del tango, Editorial Tango, Buenos Aires, Year 1, no. 22, March 1991, p. 6.
  4. Diario El Litoral on 25.05.2013 http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2013/05/25/escenariosysociedad/SOCI-03.html
  5. Los grandes del tango, p. 13
  6. Translation by TT team. Original in Spanish: Yo estaba a mis anchas, porque siempre me gustó ejecutar la música de todo el mundo. Es que a la música hay que darle la esencia del lugar y el tiempo que le corresponde. Y en eso puedo decir que la sé respetar fidedignamente - de Los grandes del tango, p.12.
  7. It still stands today on Posadas 1795, see the song page Palais de Glace.
  8. Lefcovich, Estudio de la discografía..., p. 6.
  9. Lefcovich, Estudio de la discografía..., p. 7.
  10. Many puns have been made, as well as several comments, about the fact that both D’Agostino and Vargas bore the same first name, Ángel, meaning angel.
  11. Paulina Singerman (1911-1984) was a well-known Argentine actress.
  12. Adet, Manuel, "Ángel D'Agostino, el piano de Vargas" Diario El Litoral on 25.05.2013 http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2013/05/25/escenariosysociedad/SOCI-03.html
  13. Interview with Carlos Puente, November 2014. Extract online on tangotunes.com.
  14. Link to interview.
  15. General Paz: Highway that acts as one of the borders of the city of Buenos Aires.
  16. Quoted in Los grandes del tango, p. 22-23.